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Organic matter, or biomass, can be converted into bioenergy (heat and/or electricity) using a variety of technologies. The costs of bioenergy facility vary significantly with resource, site constraints and technology.
Victoria has a significant opportunity to develop a large bioenergy industry, with feed stocks ranging from agricultural and industry wastes, to purpose-grown crops.
Materials that can be used in to generate bioenergy include:
- Waste streams from the agricultural industry,
- Municipal landfill wastes (solids and gases),
- Forestry and food industry residues; and
- Agricultural or energy crops.
Biomass is categorised as either dry (e.g. straw, poultry litter, forestry residues) or wet (e.g. slurry from piggeries and dairies).
Dry fuels are typically combusted to produce energy. Combustion of dry fuels can take the form of gasification, utilising turbines and engines, or pyrolysis, a thermal treatment that produces solid, liquid or gaseous fuels in the absence of air.
Wet fuels can be digested to produce methane-rich biogas in anaerobic digesters. Anaerobic digesters and landfills use the same process of bacterial decomposition in the absence of oxygen to release biogases subsequently used in internal combustion engines.
Bioenergy incorporates a wide variety of resources. A representative sample of the different categories of bioenergy resources available are mapped below.
Key: Agriculture Resource Example - Number of sows per postcode
The above map indicates the number of sows per postcode and was sourced from the Victorian Piggeries Association. Bioenergy from agriculture generally comes in the form of wastes such as animal or crop waste.
Organic Processing Resources- Processing and Manufacturing Plants
Key: Organic Processing Resource Example - processing and manufacturing plants
Processing and Manufacturing plants across Victoria produce waste during various production processes. The waste produced has the potential to be converted into energy that can be directly used on site.
Municipal Solid Waste Resources-Household Waste
Key: Municipal Solid Waste Resource Example - total kilograms of waste per household
The above map shows municipal Solid Waste by Local Government Area. Municipal solid waste incorporates recycling waste, green waste, and garbage waste. These three components make up the total waste shown in the above map. The majority of garbage collected ends up in landfill sites. Landfill sites can be used to produce electricity from the decomposing process of garbage and subsequent gas produced.
Key: Sewage Resource Example - Dry tonnes of sludge produced per year
Dry sludge is a waste produced within Victorian's sewage network. It is recorded by water authority boundaries and was sourced from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Wood Resources-Construction and Demolition Waste
Key: Wood Resource Example - Construction and Demolition tonnes ('000) produced per year
Construction and Demolition waste is recorded for Regional Waste Management groups. Other wood waste resources include waste from commercial and industrial development and also from timber processing.
Document | PDF | 698KB
Biomass Technology Review
Document | PDF | 731KB
Sustainability Guide and Code of Practice for Energy from Waste
Document | PDF | 608KB
Moving Towards Sustainable Biosolids Management
Document | PDF | 556KB
Biomass energy production in Australia
Document | PDF | 377KB
Your Easy Guide to Waste Technology
Document | PDF | 634KB
The potential for using tallow as a fuel for the production of energy
Document | PDF | 251KB
Total waste management system at Berybank Farm Piggery, Charles I.F.E.